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Mexicans From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search For a specific analysis of the population of Mexico, see Demographics of Mexico . For a more precise analysis on the nationality and identity of Mexico, see Mexican nationality law . "Mexicanos" redirects here. For the suburb of San Salvador, El Salvador, see Mejicanos . Mexicans Mexicanos National Flag of Mexico Total population Mexican citizens: c.  132 million Mexican ancestry: c.  24 million Regions with significant populations   Mexico 119,530,753 [1]   United States 11,651,419 (citizens) [2] Note A   Canada 69,695 (citizens) [3] Note B   Spain 47,917 [2]   Guatemala 14,481 [4]   Germany 14,156 [5]   Colombia 12,286 [ citation needed ]   United Kingdom 11,000 [2]   Bolivia 9,377 [6]   Argentina 7,239 [2]   Brazil 6,625 [ citation needed ]    Switzerland 6,460 [2]   Netherlands 5,254 [2]   Costa Rica 4,874 [2]   France 4,601 [ citation needed ]   Italy 4,357 [2]   Paraguay 4,187 [ citation needed ]   Australia 3,500 [7]   Israel 3,070 [2]   Sweden 2,432 [2]   Belize 2,351 [ citation needed ]   Japan 2,141 [8 pension-meaning-in-spanish-rid-0.html. pens amazon.in] Languages Spanish, English and minority languages (incl. 68 federally recognized indigenous languages) Religion Roman Catholicism 82.7% [9]  · Protestantism 9.7% other faith 2.9% (incl. Judaism  · Islam  · Buddhism  · Hinduism  · Folk religions ) Related ethnic groups other Latin Americans ^ Note A: This is the number of Mexican citizens in the U.S. Including descendants, the enlarged Mexican-American community was estimated in July 2016 to be 36,255,589 amounting to 11.22% of total U.S. population [10] Note B: This is the number of Mexicans by birth in Canada, including ancestry the enlarged Mexican-Canadian community was recorded to be 97,055 in 2011.

Mexicans ( Spanish : mexicanos ) are the people of the United Mexican States , a multiethnic country in North America . Mexicans can also be those who identify with the Mexican cultural or national identity .

The Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl ( city-state ) located on an island in Lake Texcoco , in the Valley of Mexico . It became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, [11] until captured by the Spanish in 1521 . At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas . It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain . Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City .

The modern nation of Mexico achieved independence from the Spanish Empire ; this began the process of forging a national identity that fused the cultural traits of indigenous pre-Columbian origin with those of European, particularly Iberian, ancestry. This led to what has been termed "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism" [12]

The most spoken language by Mexicans is Mexican Spanish , but some may also speak languages from 68 different indigenous linguistic groups and other languages brought to Mexico by recent immigration or learned by Mexican immigrants residing in other nations. In 2015, 21.5% of Mexico's population self-identified as being Indigenous or partially Indigenous . [13] [14] [15] There are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside Mexico, with about 11.7 million [16] living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can also include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico and self-identify as Mexican.

Contents

1 History 2 Definitions 3 Ethnic groups 3.1 Mestizo Mexicans 3.2 European Mexicans 3.3 Indigenous Mexicans 3.4 Arab Mexicans 3.5 Afro-Mexicans 3.6 Asian Mexicans 3.7 Today 3.8 Official censuses 3.8.1 1793 census 3.8.2 1921 census 3.8.3 Present day 4 Population genetics 4.1 Autosomal studies 4.2 MtDna and y DNA studies 5 Languages 6 Culture 6.1 Literature 6.2 Science 6.3 Music 6.4 Cinema 6.5 Visual arts 6.6 Architecture 7 Religion 8 See also 9 Works cited 10 References 11 Further reading

History

See also: History of Mexico Mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace depicting the history of Mexico from the Conquest to early 20th century

The Mexican people have varied origins and an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and later by Europeans. The area that is now modern-day Mexico has cradled many predecessor civilizations, going back as far as the Olmec which influenced the latter civilizations of Teotihuacan (200 B.C. to 700 A.D.) and the much debated Toltec people who flourished around the 10th and 12th centuries A.D., and ending with the last great indigenous civilization before the Spanish Conquest , the Aztecs (13 March 1325 to 13 August 1521). The Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish.

After the conquest of the Aztec empire , the Spanish re-administered the land and expanded their own empire beyond the former boundaries of the Aztec, adding more territory to the Mexican sphere of influence which remained under the Spanish Crown for 300 years. Cultural diffusion and intermixing among the Amerindian populations with the European created the modern Mexican identity which is a mixture of regional indigenous and European cultures that evolved into a national culture during the Spanish period. This new identity was defined as " Mexican " shortly after the Mexican War of Independence and was more invigorated and developed after the Mexican Revolution when the Constitution of 1917 officially established Mexico as an indivisible pluricultural nation founded on its indigenous roots.

Definitions

Mexicano (Mexican) is derived from the word Mexico itself. In the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin.

It has been suggested that the name of the country is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli , in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". [17] Another hypothesis [18] suggests that Mēxihco derives from the Nahuatl words for "Moon" ( Mētztli ) and navel ( xīctli ). This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might then refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco . The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon . Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey . [18]

The term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a single group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the geographical limits of the modern Mexican Republic. The term was used for the first time in the first document printed in Barcelona in 1566 which documented the expedition which launched from the port in Acapulco to find the best route which would favor a return journey from the Spanish East Indies to New Spain . The document stated: " el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho " (the venturous discovery that the Mexicans have made). That discovery led to the Manila galleon trade route and those "Mexicans" referred to Criollos , Mestizos and Amerindians alluding to a plurality of persons who participated for a common end: the conquest of the Philippines in 1565. (Gómez M., et al. 56)

Ethnic groups

See also: Ethnography of Mexico Mestizo Mexicans Main article: Mestizos in Mexico President Porfirio Díaz was of Mestizo descent.

A large majority of Mexicans have been classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a Spanish cultural heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating elements from indigenous and Spanish traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje [mestiˈsahe] . Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje. [19] [20]

Since the Mestizo identity promoted by the government is more of a cultural identity than a biological one it has achieved a strong influence in the country, with a good number of biologically white people identifying with it, leading to being considered Mestizos in Mexico's demographic investigations and censuses due the ethnic criteria having its base on cultural traits rather than biological ones. [21] A similar situation occurs regarding the distinctions between Indigenous peoples and Mestizos: while the term Mestizo is sometimes used in English with the meaning of a person with mixed indigenous and European blood, this usage does not conform to the Mexican social reality where a person of pure Indigenous genetic heritage would be considered Mestizo either by rejecting his indigenous culture or by not speaking an indigenous language, [22] and a person with none or a very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage. [23] [24] [25] In the Yucatán peninsula the word Mestizo has a different meaning, with it being to refer to the Maya -speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as Mestizos. [26] In Chiapas the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo. [27]

Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to "help" indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the rest of society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to Mestizo Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into Mestizo communities. [28]

Given that the word Mestizo has different meanings in Mexico, estimates of the Mexican Mestizo population vary widely. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica , which uses a biology-based approach, between one half and two thirds of the Mexican population is Mestizo. [29] A culture-based estimate gives the percentage of Mestizos as high as 90%. [30] Paradoxically, the word Mestizo has long been dropped from popular Mexican vocabulary, with the word even having pejorative connotations, [26] which further complicates attempts to quantify Mestizos via self-identification.

While for most of its history the concept of Mestizo and Mestizaje has been lauded by Mexico’s intellectual circles, in recent times the concept has been target of criticism, with its detractors claiming that it delegitimizes racist practices in Mexico under the idea of “(Racism) Not existing here (Mexico), as everybody is Mestizo” the Mestizo ideology thus, has cemented a terrain of resistance in regards to social, politic and academic mobility around the theme of race in Mexico. [31] In general, the authors conclude that Mexico introducing a real racial classification and accepting itself as a multicultural country opposed to a monolithic Mestizo country would bring benefits to the Mexican society as a whole. [32]

European Mexicans Main article: Mexicans of European descent Mexican girls of European ancestry in Zapopan , Jalisco

White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of full or majoritary European descent. [33] Given that the Mexican government does not conduct racial censuses that quantify the country's Eurodescendant population, estimations of this ethnic group's percentage within Mexico's population vary depending of the source, ranging from one tenth or one fifth [34] to as high as 47%. [35] [36] The later figure, coming from a recent nationwide survey conducted by the Mexican government as a mean to address the problems of racism that Mexicans of mainly Indigenous or African ancestry suffer at hands of a society that favors light skinned, European looking Mexicans. [37]

Europeans began arriving in Mexico during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire ; and while during the colonial period most European immigration was Spanish, in the 19th and 20th centuries European and European-derived populations from North and South America did immigrate to the country. According to 20th and 21th century academics, large scale intermixing between the European immigrants and the native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of Independence . [38] However according to church registers from the colonial times , the majority (73%) of Spanish men married with Spanish women. Said registers also put in question other narratives held by contemporary academics, such as European immigrants who arrived to Mexico being almost exclusively men or that "pure Spanish" people were all part of a small powerful elite, as Spaniards were often the most numerous ethnic group in the colonial cities [39] and there were menial workers and people in poverty who were of complete Spanish origin. [40]

Mexico’s northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European population, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards . [41] In the north and west of Mexico, the indigenous tribes were substantially smaller than those found in central and southern Mexico, and also much less organized, thus they remained isolated from the rest of the population or even in some cases were hostile towards Mexican colonists. The northeast region, in which the indigenous population was eliminated by early European settlers, became the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period . However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, its demographic trends. [42]

The White population of central Mexico, despite not being as numerous as in the north due to higher mixing, is ethnically more diverse, as there are large numbers of other European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups, aside from Spaniards. This also results in non- Iberian surnames (mostly French, German, Italian and Arab) being more common in central Mexico, especially in the country's capital and in the state of Jalisco .

Indigenous Mexicans Main article: Indigenous people of Mexico Benito Juárez was the first President of Indigenous descent in Mexico

The 2003 General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken. [43] The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory, but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States [44] in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s. [45]

The category of "indigena" (indigenous) in Mexico has been defined based on different criteria through history, this means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied. It can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak an Indigenous language, based on this criteria approximately 5.4% of the population is Indigenous. [46] Nonetheless, activists for the rights of indigenous peoples have referred to the usage of this criteria for census purposes as "statistical genocide" [47] [48]

Other surveys made by the Mexican government do count as Indigenous all persons who speak an indigenous language and people who do not speak indigenous languages nor live in indigenous communities but self-identifies as Indigenous. According to this criteria, the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography), state that there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico of many different ethnic groups, [49] which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country. [50]

According to the latest intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government on 2015, Indigenous people make up 21.5% of Mexico's population. In this occasion, people who self-identified as "Indigenous" and people who self-identified as "partially Indigenous" were classified in the "Indigenous" category altogether. [13]

The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling. [46] [51] [52] The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central-southern and south-eastern states, with the majority of the indigenous population living in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have a degree of autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate some internal issues under customary law .

According to the CDI, the states with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are [53] Yucatán , with 62.7%, Quintana Roo with 33.8% and Campeche with 32% of the population being indigenous, most of them Maya ; Oaxaca with 58% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples ; Chiapas has 32.7%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo with 30.1%, the majority being Otomi ; Puebla with 25.2%, and Guerrero with 22.6%, mostly Nahua people and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population of 19% indigenous people, mostly from the Totonac , Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups. [54]

Arab Mexicans Main article: Arab Mexicans Carlos Slim is of Lebanese descent .

An Arab Mexican is a Mexican citizen of Arabic -speaking origin who can be of various ancestral origins. The vast majority of Mexico's 1.1 million Arabs are from either Lebanese , Syrian , Iraqi , or Palestinian background. [55]

The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Mexico shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language. Today, the most common Arabic surnames in Mexico include Nader, Hayek, Ali, Haddad, Nasser, Malik, Abed, Mansoor, Harb and Elias.

Arab immigration to Mexico started in the 19th and early 20th centuries. [ citation needed ] Roughly 100,000 Arabic-speakers settled in Mexico during this time period. They came mostly from Lebanon , Syria, Palestine , and Iraq and settled in significant numbers in Nayarit , Puebla , Mexico City and the Northern part of the country (mainly in the states of Baja California , Tamaulipas , Nuevo Leon , Sinaloa , Chihuahua, Coahuila , and Durango , as well as the city of Tampico and Guadalajara . The term "Arab Mexican" may include ethnic groups that do not in fact identify as Arab.

During the Israel-Lebanon war in 1948 and during the Six-Day War, thousands of Lebanese left Lebanon and went to Mexico. They first arrived in Veracruz. Although Arabs made up less than 5% of the total immigrant population in Mexico during the 1930s, they constituted half of the immigrant economic activity. [56]

Immigration of Arabs in Mexico has influenced Mexican culture, in particular food, where they have introduced Kibbeh , Tabbouleh and even created recipes such as Tacos Árabes . By 1765, [ citation needed ] Dates , which originated from the Middle East, were introduced into Mexico by the Spaniards. The fusion between Arab and Mexican food has highly influenced the Yucatecan cuisine. [57]

Another concentration of Arab-Mexicans is in Baja California facing the U.S.-Mexican border, esp. in cities of Mexicali in the Imperial Valley U.S./Mexico, and Tijuana across from San Diego with a large Arab American community (about 280,000), some of whose families have relatives in Mexico. 45% of Arab Mexicans are of Lebanese descent.

The majority of Arab-Mexicans are Christians who belong to the Maronite Church , Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches . [58] A scant number are Muslims and Jews of Middle Eastern origins.

Afro-Mexicans Main article: Afro-Mexicans Afromestiza girls in Punta Maldonado, Cuajinicuilapa , Guerrero

Afro-Mexicans are an ethnic group that predominate in certain areas of Mexico. Such as the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and the Costa Chica of Guerrero , Veracruz (e.g. Yanga ) and in some towns in northern Mexico. The existence of blacks in Mexico is unknown, denied or diminished in both Mexico and abroad for a number of reasons: their small numbers, heavy intermarriage with other ethnic groups and Mexico's tradition of defining itself as a "mestizaje" or mixing of European and indigenous. Mexico did have an active slave trade since the early Spanish period but from the beginning, intermarriage and mixed race offspring created an elaborate caste system. This system broke down in the very late Spanish period and after Independence the legal notion of race was eliminated. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past actively or passively eliminating its African one from popular consciousness.

The majority of Mexico's native Afro-descendants are Afromestizos , i.e. "mixed-race". Individuals with significantly high amounts of African ancestry make up a very low percentage of the total Mexican population, the majority being recent black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere in the Americas. According to the Intercensal survey carried out by the Mexican government, Afro-Mexicans make up 1.2% of Mexico's population, the Afro-Mexican category in the Intercensal survey includes people who self-identified solely as African and people who self-identified as partially African. The survey also states that 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous, with 9.3% being speakers of indigenous languages . [13]

Asian Mexicans Main article: Asian Mexicans Japanese Mexican youths in Monterrey

Asian Mexicans make up less than 1% of the total population of modern Mexico , nonetheless they are a notable minority. Due to the historical and contemporary perception in Mexican society of what constitutes Asian culture (associated with the Far East rather than the Near East ), Asian Mexicans are of East , South and Southeast Asian descent and Mexicans of West Asian descent are not considered to be part of the group.

Asian immigration began with the arrival of Filipinos to Mexico during the Spanish period. For two and a half centuries, between 1565 and 1815, many Filipinos and Mexicans sailed to and from Mexico and the Philippines as sailors, crews, slaves, prisoners, adventurers and soldiers in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon assisting Spain in its trade between Asia and the Americas. Also on these voyages, thousands of Asian individuals (mostly males) were brought to Mexico as slaves and were called "Chino", [59] which meant Chinese. Although in reality they were of diverse origins, including Japanese, Koreans, Malays, Filipinos, Javanese, Cambodians, Timorese, and people from Bengal, India, Ceylon, Makassar, Tidore, Terenate, and China. [60] [61] [62] A notable example is the story of Catarina de San Juan (Mirra), an Indian girl captured by the Portuguese and sold into slavery in Manila. She arrived in New Spain and eventually she gave rise to the " China Poblana ".

These early individuals are not very apparent in modern Mexico for two main reasons: the widespread mestizaje of Mexico during the Spanish period and the common practice of Chino slaves to " pass " as Indios (the indigenous people of Mexico) in order to attain freedom. As had occurred with a large portion of Mexico's black population, over generations the Asian populace was absorbed into the general Mestizo population. Facilitating this miscegenation was the assimilation of Asians into the indigenous population. The indigenous people were legally protected from chattel slavery , and by being recognized as part of this group, Asian slaves could claim they were wrongly enslaved.

Asians, predominantly Chinese, became Mexico's fastest-growing immigrant group from the 1880s to the 1920s, exploding from about 1,500 in 1895 to more than 20,000 in 1910. [63]

Today Nowadays people of different ethnicities coexist under the same Mexican national identity, although discrimination due to skin color still exists. [64]

Ethnic relations in modern Mexico have grown out of the historical context of the arrival of Europeans , the subsequent Spanish period of cultural and genetic miscegenation within the frame work of the castas system, the revolutionary periods focus on incorporating all ethnic and racial group into a common Mexican national identity and the indigenous revival of the late 20th century. The resulting picture has been called "a peculiar form of multi-ethnic nationalism". [12]

Very generally speaking ethnic relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural heritage, this is a remnant of the Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups. Additionally the presence of considerable portions of the population with partly African and Asian heritage further complicates the situation. [65] Even though it still arranges persons along the line between indigenous and European, in practice the classificatory system is no longer biologically based, but rather mixes socio-cultural traits with phenotypical traits, and classification is largely fluid, allowing individuals to move between categories and define their ethnic and racial identities situationally. [66] [67]

Official censuses

Historically, population studies and censuses have never been up to the standards that a population as diverse and numerous such as Mexico's require: the first racial census was made in 1793, being also Mexico's (then known as New Spain ) first ever nationwide population census, of it, only part of the original datasets survive, thus most of what it's known of it comes from essays made by researchers who back in the day used the census' findings as reference for their own works. More than a century would pass until the Mexican government conducted a new racial census in 1921 (some sources assert that the census of 1895 included a comprehensive racial classification, [38] however according to the historic archives of Mexico's National Institute of Statistics that was not the case). [68] While the 1921 census was the last time the Mexican government conducted a census that included a comprehensive racial classification, in recent time it has conducted nationwide surveys to quantify most of the ethnic groups who inhabit the country as well as the social dynamics and inequalities between them.
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Forum home :: Latest threads :: Search forums The Comments 01 Sep 2010 00:00 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

Does anyone know how many years you have to work in Spain to get the FULL retirement pension and what that amount is?

 

Is there a website where you can get info about this (in english or spanish)

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 19:59 by Hammer100 in Camposol, Mazarron. 94 posts Send private message

Believe it is 15 years to qualify for a pension.


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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 20:13 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

15 years for a 50% pension but 35 years for FULL 100% pension. The full Spanish state pension is now over 800 euros pm, much higher than the full UK state pension.

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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 20:15 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

Hi no you only need to contribute for one year now

 

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 20:23 by moonbeam . 14 posts Send private message

Believe you need 35 years of contributions to get a FULL Spanish state pension.  Retirement age at present is 65, but you can retire from 60/61 onwards with a reduction.

The amount you will get is calculated on the last 15 years of your working life (but they are talking about making this the last 20 years)

The government does have a website giving information.  If you Google it I´m sure it will come up as an option.

Hope this helps a bit.

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 20:42 by Roberto in Torremolinos. 4076 posts Send private message

I haven't got time to trawl through it all right now, but I think you may find the info you're after here

Hope this helps? If so, maybe you can post a synopsis here later for the rest of us!


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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 20:55 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

MexMaya, one year? Dream on chuck! The Spanish pension qualifications and age of retirement are currently under review so maybe it will change to one year............but somehow I doubt it.

www.intlben.com/country-profiles/spain-employee-benefits-state-mandatory-private-pension


 



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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 21:05 by Roberto in Torremolinos. 4076 posts Send private message

There may be some truth in it - any contributions may count towards some sort of pension. Have a look at this site also.


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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 21:18 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

No I am not dreaming, this site will not let me post the link but google for EUlisses - it tells you all the new EU rules on pensions if you contributed in more than one EU country, its the spanish element I am missing......

 

I have contributed to Spain for several years and before that the UK but EUlissess is not clear on how much pension you can get and it does not seem possible to get a pension forecast from both countries.

 

This message was last edited by MexMaya on 01/09/2010. 0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 21:19 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

Contributions paid in some countries may count towards a state retirement pension in another. So, if you have not paid enough contributions in one country to qualify for a state pension the contributions paid in another could be used to qualify for a state pension in another country. I don't know of anywhere where one years worth of contributions is enough to qualify for anything unless it is used in conjuction with contributions paid in another country.

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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 21:32 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

Your entitlement to a FULL pension will depend on the qualifying requirements of the country you are claiming in. As I previously posted currently in Spain it is 35 years for a FULL pension, in the UK it is 30 years. Before a pension forecast can be given they will have to know full details of where you were living and dates etc. Depending on how long  you have been contributing in Spain it may be more benficial to have those contributed added to your UK contributions and claim a UK pension (or vice versa) but obviously it depends on your individual circumstances.

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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 01 Sep 2010 22:29 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

But under the new rules it seems you are not able to do this Poppyseed?  Have you looked at EUlisses?  It says categoically that you must draw the relevant proportions from the country in which you contributed. If I add my contributions together then I am almost at 35 years contributions in total within the EU.   Is it 35 years in Spain on basic seg social contributions or should you pay enhanced contributions to actually qualify for the full pension?  It seems also there are variations in Regions?

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 10:01 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/social_security_schemes/eulisses/jetspeed/portal/media-type/html/language/en/user/anon/page/socialsecurity.psml/js_panename/step2?id=106&mode=1&name=Adding together periods of cover


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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 10:16 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

Yes that was the link I tried to post but this forum would not let me?  Am I doing something wrong?

So if I have 35 years combined then does that mean I get the equivalent of a full spanish pension (worth more) if I am living in spain or do they only add on enough contrubituions from the UK to make it up to the minimum requirement (15 years worth)? Or is it proportionate to the country I contributed in?  I don´t understand how I can work out how much pension I should receive from which country.........

 

 

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 10:58 by kabri in Squatting in the Cos.... 45 posts Send private message

 

My sister inlaw has contacted DHSS in the UK last month as she has been working for eight years here in Spain to ask whether the contributions paid could be combined with her previous UK contributions to top up the UK pension the answer was NO, you now have to apply for the pension from what ever country you have paid into the system and contributions cannot be combined.

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 13:46 by Sanchez1 . 852 posts Send private message

My sister inlaw has contacted DHSS in the UK last month as she has been working for eight years here in Spain to ask whether the contributions paid could be combined with her previous UK contributions to top up the UK pension the answer was NO, you now have to apply for the pension from what ever country you have paid into the system and contributions cannot be combined.

This is my understanding of how it works.  I asked The social security dept in Gibraltar and they said I would get separate pensions from Gib, Spain and the UK.


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0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 16:12 by Poppyseed . 892 posts Send private message

From the Pensions Service website

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Pensionsandretirementplanning/StatePension/Basicstatepension/DG_10026714

Making State Pension contributions if you work abroad

If you're working abroad, you may be able to pay into the State Pension scheme of the country where you're working. You can do this in EEA countries and some others, such as Canada and New Zealand, where there are special arrangements.

Depending on how long you work abroad, you can have your contributions credited to your UK State Pension or you could receive two pensions - one from the UK and one from the country where you lived and worked. This will be decided when you reach State Pension age, taking into account where you live.


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Poppyseed

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 17:27 by MexMaya . 30 posts Send private message

Hi Poppyseed, thank you for taking time to post so many helpful links on here, but its all this conflicting info that makes me confused as they contradict one another.....I have been told the EUlisses info is the latest and thus most correct as it came in in last 18 months........but it seems maybe even government bodies are not clear!

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 17:28 by moonbeam . 14 posts Send private message

Don´t know if this helps - but as I understand it you need 35 years contributions to qualify for a full Spanish state pension, including contributions made in EU countries. 

The amount of pension you will receive depends on the contributions made during the last 15 years before the minimum retirement age (at present 65, early retirement possible with appropriate reductions from 60).  Men and women have the same retirement age. This favours people in civil service type jobs who have good pay scales and so receive higher salaries, with higher contributions paid, during the latter part of their working life.  It does not favour the poor souls who lose their jobs in their 50´s with little hope of getting well paid work again before retirement.  So they are talking about making the calcuation period for the amount of  the pension to be received over the last 20 years.  I think this is fairer to everybody.

Unlike some other countries at present the pension you receive here is more or less earnings related.  The 15 years is not a minimum period of employment but the period over which they look at the contributions made to calculate the amount of your pension. 

Therefore, the pensions here are usually higher than English pensions.  Private pension schemes are not common at all here, but that will change in the future as the government feel they cannot afford  to offer such ´generous´ pensions forever!  They also plan to raise the retirement age to 67. 

The basic non-contributive pension is rather low at only 399 euros per month.

However, I´m not sure what happens if you do not have the full 15 years of Spanish contributions necessary for the calculation, but mainly contributions in other EU countries during this time!  It seems you might have to take separate pensions from separate countries in this situation?

This pension theme is a really interesting point to get clarified, as it´s going to affect us all one day!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

0       Like  Spam post or abuse? Please let us know 02 Sep 2010 18:11 by moonbeam . 14 posts Send private message

Sorry - meant to say all the people who are asking how their contributions will affect their future pensions.  Not everybody who is reading this forum!

 

 

 

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